He was uncompromisingly loyal and showcased modest selflessness in his shunning of personal recognition and honors for his astounding achievements, choosing to defer the credit and glory to Augustus. [20], Pompey remained there from 76 – 71 BC; he was for long unable to bring the war to an end due to Sertorius' guerrilla tactics. Some hasty replanning was needed, much to the embarrassment of Pompey and amusement of those present. His policy was one of reconciliation and rehabilitation. Pompey retreats to Egypt and is killed at. In the past, these civil engineering tasks were entrusted to magistrates. Pompey's career seems to have been driven by desire for military glory and disregard for traditional political constraints. Augustus chose Agrippa to be consul in 28 and 27 BCE when he, along with Augustus, would take on the role of censor and carry out the first census (lustrum) of Rome since 71 BCE. In 52 BCE Pompey became a single consul and began practising politics, which indirectly hit Caesar hard. After his consulship, he waited in Rome while rival nobles undermined the position of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, who was campaigning against Mithradates in Anatolia, and made halfhearted attempts to deal with the pirates. Pompey. [12], After this string of victories, Pompey was proclaimed Imperator by his troops on the field in Africa; once back in Rome, he was given an enthusiastic popular reception and hailed by Sulla as Magnus (the Great) – probably in recognition of Pompey's undoubted victories and popularity, but also with some degree of sarcasm. Pompey the Great, Latin in full Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, (born September 29, 106 bce, Rome—died September 28, 48 bce, Pelusium, Egypt), one of the great statesmen and generals of the late Roman Republic, a triumvir (61–54 bce) who was an associate and later an opponent of Julius Caesar. In the process, neither Pompey nor the Senate thought of taking the vast treasury with them, probably thinking Caesar would not dare take it for himself. Plutarch portrayed him as a Roman Alexander the Great, pure of heart and mind, destroyed by the cynical ambitions of those around him. ", The expedience of his campaign probably guaranteed Pompey his next and even more impressive command, this time in Rome's long-running war against Mithridates. While several attempts at various compromises with Sextus had taken place in 39 BC, the power struggle between Octavian and Sextus began in 38 BC. It is also clear that Augustus wanted Agrippa to be seen as his equal in many regards, not just a junior emperor. In Anatolia, he created the new provinces of Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia. Whilst these actions would not have perhaps been seen favourably by Caesar; that is not to say that they were not directly enacted so as to do so.

In practice, however, both islands were under the control of Pompey’s son, Sextus Pompey, who was the leader of the “Pompeians”. Various settlements, peoples and city-states around the Mediterranean had coexisted several centuries and most had operated small fleets for war, or trade in commodities, including slaves.

Even so, he was accompanied by a gigantic portrait head of himself, studded with pearls. He had divorced his third wife, Mucia, allegedly for adultery with Caesar, and now proposed to ally himself by marriage to the party of the young senatorial leader Marcus Porcius Cato the Younger. He got involved with Pompey through his daughter Julia, whose hand was given to him. He even adopted them as his own sons, making them his sons and grandsons at the same time.

Pompey married Sulla’s stepdaughter. [4] His twenty year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, his political leanings and the loyalty of his legions. With Crassus – Rome’s richest citizen – Caesar was in alliance with him since 65 BCE, when he supported his proposal to subordinate Egypt to Rome. James' main area of research is ancient Greek music, but he has general interests in mythology, religion, and art & archaeology. By the end of that winter, the preparations were complete. Sifuentes, Jesse. My other passions include classical music, art, the Italian language, and the Sicilian dialect. As Cicero sadly noted, Pompey had been diminished by age, uncertainty, his fear of Caesar and the strain of being the chosen tool of a quarreling oligarchy of optimates. In a civil war (88–87) between the rival generals Lucius Sulla and Gaius Marius, Strabo defied Sulla and favoured the Marians and a fellow general. Despite this, the rules were waived, and Pompey took the consulship for that year with Crassus. Some were subsidised. Naturally, the target was Caesar’s opponents, including: Cicero, who opposed Caesar and ridiculed Antony in the Philippicae; Marcus Favonius, a supporter of Cato the Younger and opponent of the triumvirs; or Caesar’s legate – Quintus Tullius Cicero, younger brother of Cicero. These facts led to another civil war. After a brief peace treaty signed in 39 BCE, Octavian attempted to recover Sicily but was defeated in the naval battle of Messina in 37 BCE. [53], Theodatus shows Caesar the head of Pompey; etching, 1820. "Marcus Agrippa." It was Rome's first permanent theatre, a gigantic, architecturally daring, self-contained complex on the Campus Martius, complete with shops, multi-service buildings, gardens and a temple to Venus Victrix. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom.

Soon he also learned that he had been adopted by Caesar and recognized as the main heir (2/?of the estate) under his will, took a new name, Gaius Julius Caesaradding a family member Octavianus. In doing so Agrippa defeated Mark Antony, who had been Julius Caesar's most able general and was widely regarded as the most able Roman military commander after Caesar's death. He supported Sulla's traditionalist optimates against the popularist general Marius in the first Marian-Sullanwar. Times and again his key military victories were owed to Marcus Agrippa. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. He renovated the streets and public buildings of Rome like never before. In 33 BCE, Agrippa assumed the office of aedile, a magistracy which oversaw Roman daily life and staging of festivals and entertainment. In 56 BCE, the bonds between the triumvirs loosened. Books Pompey responded with war. He reacted with ruthless efficiency. Agrippa, using his much larger and stronger ships and the harpax, overwhelmingly defeated Pompey’s fleet losing only three ships in the battle while destroying 28 enemy vessels. Octavian now turned to his friend's help. The decision of running to one of the eastern kingdoms was overruled in favour of Egypt. Upon returning, Pompey celebrated a triumph the likes of which Rome had never seen before, one that lasted a whole two days! Pompey’s military career started in the Social Wars (91- 89 BCE) when he served under his father’s army at Asculum (89 BCE). A decade on, in the 50s BC, the Cilicians and pirates in general remained a nuisance to Rome's sea trade. It was left conveniently in the Temple of Saturn when Caesar and his forces entered Rome. Finally, in 13 BCE Agrippa obtained imperium proconsulare maius (supreme power even over sitting consuls), which is to say the exact same imperial power as Augustus across the entire Roman world. [10] In 82 BC, Pompey secured Sicily, guaranteeing Rome's grain supply. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pompey-the-Great, UNRV History - Biography of Pompey the Great, The Roman Empire - Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Social Studies for Kids - Biography of Pompey the Great, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Pompey the Great, Pompey the Great - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In the beginning, Pompey claimed he could defeat Caesar and raise armies merely by stamping his foot on the soil of Italy, but by the spring of 49 BC, with Caesar crossing the Rubicon and his invading legions sweeping down the peninsula, Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome.

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